Pope Sixtus V (Felice Peretti, Pope from 1585-90) was interested in organizing a modern Rome, he planned to do this using a combination of marking important monuments with Christianized pagan obelisks and renewing urban infrastructure. As the patron of Domenico Fontana (1543-1607) he made it possible for Fontana to straighten, widen, and lengthen circuitous routes between religious sites. The overarching goal being pilgrim accessibility.
Fontana was also responsible for moving and erecting these obelisk markers, which could weigh over 300 tons. He was sometimes assisted by his brother, Giovanni and nephew, Carlo Maderno.
Some of the monuments which had obelisks erected are St. Peter's and S. Maria Maggiore, which is centrally located with streets radiating from it and is an important pilgrimage church.
Domenico Fontana was also behind the Fountain of Moses (Acqua Felice, 1587). As Rome's first source of water since the 6th century, it was meant to symbolize Pope Sixtus V as Moses bringing water to Rome. With the building of this modern Rome, the transition to Baroque was approaching.